A state-wise insight of India’s Building Sector- Policy and Strategy mapping

Housing has been one of the most eminent factors in the process of evolution, derived from the history of human civilisation. Housing is an essential aspect of human well-being that depends on territoriality, security, and a balance between privacy and communal activity.

The growth of housing has been unable to keep pace with the demand, and as per an estimate by the Government of India, the shortfall of housing in India was close to 1.9 crore units in 2012. This shortage ignited policies at the centre level like Housing for All and missions like Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana that intend to fill the gap in the demand-supply market and shape the future of the housing sector. Under the Constitution of India, housing is a state subject, and the state governments must estimate the shortfall, prepare required policies and ensure successful implementation in the state.

The housing policies laid down by the government of India have come a long way since independence, where initially the government’s role was essentially the ‘provider’, which gradually modified to ‘facilitator’. Earlier, the housing policies focused on the delivery of housing stock. In contrast, initiatives like Eco-Niwas Samhita, GRIHA, and LEED focus on aspects beyond the delivery, covering parts of thermal comfort, energy efficiency, and sustainability.

These efficient buildings not only reduce or try to eliminate the negative impacts the built stock has on the environment by using fewer resources, but in a few cases, they have a positive impact by generating their energy and enhancing biodiversity. At the building level, the occupant gets improved liveable conditions and savings on resource consumption bills. At the global level, these buildings can support limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C above the pre-industrial level. These buildings could be estimated to save billions of dollars on energy spending. Hence, implementing these policies impacts the building’s scale and helps achieve national and global targets.

Cognisance of the importance of implementing such policy interventions in the housing segment, we attempted to map down the institutions involved in implementing these policies and programs. This blog thoroughly overviews all state government initiatives and organisations involved in the housing sector. The intent is to give a comprehensive picture for knowledge sharing. The map below highlights the following aspect for every state of India:

  • Urban Development Entity: The organisations involved in the housing sector’s planning and development are listed under this head. These organisations at the state level are one of the most important entities for implementing and enforcing the designed policy.
  • Housing Policies and Schemes: As housing is a state subject, this section in the map highlights the housing policies, programs, and schemes launched, run, and managed by the state governments.
  • State Designated Agency: State Designated Agencies are the nodal agencies coordinating, regulating, and enforcing the Energy Conservation Act within the state.
  • Land Assembly Method, Building Bye-Laws and Rules, and RERA rules: This section highlights the method of land assembly, the name of building byelaw, and the real estate rules as the housing sector is heavily influenced by the applicable.
  • Status of Energy Conservation Building Code- Commercial and Eco-Niwas Samhita: Energy Conservation Building Code for commercial buildings is the first-ever code in the country that defines the minimum standards for energy conservation at the building level. This initiative paved the path for the Eco-Niwas Samhita, with similar intent for the residential building sector. These initiatives focus on aspects beyond mere housing delivery like thermal comfort, proper ventilation, and energy efficiency.
  • The number of LEED-certifiedbuildings and number of GRIHA registered buildings: This component indicates the number of green and efficient buildings that have come up in the state. These buildings contribute to achieving the energy-saving targets of the state.
  • Energy-saving targets:  The Bureau of Energy Efficiency has defined each state’s energy-saving target that mustbe achieved by 2031. On average, the buildings sector has a 14-17% share in the total energy saving targets, making the sector one of the essential components in reaching the envisaged goal.
Himachal Pradesh Punjab Haryana Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Maharashtra Goa Karnataka Kerala TamilNadu Telangana AndhraPradesh Chhattisgarh Odisha Jharkhand Bihar Sikkim Meghalaya Assam Tripura Mizoram Manipur Nagaland Arunachal Pradesh WestBengal

Hover and click over the states for details
Download the table

States and cities with a comprehensive, affordable housing strategy can review other states’ plans, policies, and energy conservation goals to determine whether there are some new contemporary or additional options they may consider as part of a revision of their existing strategy.

Furthermore, the list can help identify the stakeholders who have the power to take actions to help expand the scope of the housing market, availability of affordable homes, introduce the concept of energy efficiency and conservation to building users, supporting local planning efforts and help localities develop strategies to address the existing and anticipated needs.


This blog is written by Shatakshi Suman and Arzoo Kumari

Disclaimer: The information provided in the blog is based on the knowledge and research conducted by the authors. Any update or revision required may please be communicated to shatakshi@aeee.in

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